Adjuvant activity of a novel metabolizable lipid emulsion with inactivated viral vaccines.

Studies were conducted in mice, hamsters, sheep, and two species of nonhuman primates which demonstrate the adjuvant activity of a new metabolizable lipid emulsion with marginally immunogenic doses of Formalin-inactivated viral vaccines.Infection and Immunity 1980

Adjuvants- and vaccines-induced autoimmunity: animal models.

“In some cases, adjuvants may trigger generalized autoimmune response, resulting in multiple auto-antibodies, but sometimes they can reproduce human autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome and may provide insights about the potential adverse effects of adjuvants.” Immunologic Research 2017

Adverse events diagnosed within three days of vaccine administration in dogs.

“Young adult small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE {vaccine-associated adverse events} within 72 hours after vaccination.”
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2005

Anaphylaxis in dogs and cats.

“Anaphylaxis may be triggered by a variety of antigens including insect and reptile venom, a variety of drugs, vaccines, and food.” Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 2013

Autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome) in commercial sheep.

“We describe a form of the autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome) in commercial sheep, linked to the repetitive inoculation of aluminum-containing adjuvants through vaccination.” Immunologic Research 2013

Autoimmunity in spontaneous myasthenia gravis in dogs.

“The increase in the anti-AChR titer and recurrence of disease signs followed vaccination and an infection.” Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 1984

Canine parvovirus post-vaccination shedding: Interference with diagnostic assays and correlation with host immune status.

Canine rabies in Nigeria, 1970 – 1980 reported cases in vaccinated dogs.

“Of the 14 cases there were 10 cases of apparent vaccine failure involving modified live (low egg passage chick embryo) vaccine in use during the study period. In 4 of these cases, infection may actually have been induced by the vaccine.” International Journal of Zoonoses 1982

Chronic Kidney Disease in Aged Cats: Clinical Features, Morphology, and Proposed Pathogeneses.

“A variety of factors-including aging, ischemia, comorbid conditions, phosphorus overload, and routine vaccinations-have been implicated as factors that could contribute to the initiation of this disease in affected cats.” Veterinary Pathology 2016

Comparison of tissue reactions produced by Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae vaccines made with six different adjuvants in swine.

“Tissue damage caused by six different adjuvants incorporated in a Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae vaccine was compared in swine. The adjuvants compared were four mineral oil compounds, one peanut oil compound and aluminum hydroxide.” Archive of “Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 1985

An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine.

“Together, the data suggested that CTGV may have derived from VV-IOC by persisting in an indigenous animal(s), accumulating polymorphisms, and now emerging in cattle and milkers as CTGV. CTGV may represent the first case of long-term persistence of vaccinia in the New World.” Virology 2000

Endogenous retroviruses as potential hazards for vaccines.

Retroviruses are classified as exogenous or endogenous according to their mode of transmission. Generally, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are not pathogenic in their original hosts; however, some ERVs induce diseases. In humans, a novel gammaretrovirus was discovered in patients with prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome.Biologicals 2010

Evidence for immunisation failure in vaccinated adult dogs infected with canine parvovirus type 2c.

“An outbreak of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) infection in vaccinated adult dogs is reported.” New Microbiologica 2008

Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

“Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low.” The Veterinary Journal 2017

The failure of an inactivated mink enteritis virus vaccine in four preparations to provide protection to dogs against challenge with canine parvovirus-2.

“Four experimental vaccine preparations comprising a strain of mink enteritis virus inactivated by either formalin or beta-propiolactone, and either adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted, failed to stimulate a consistent serum antibody response in 20 vaccinated dogs and failed to protect all but one of these dogs against oral challenge with canine parvovirus-2.” Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 1982

Feline Injection-Site Sarcoma.

“Feline injection-site sarcoma (FISS) is an aggressive tumor believed to arise from the proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in areas of chronic inflammation, particularly at sites of injection. Local recurrence is frequent after surgical excision.” Veterinary Pathology 2017

Human and animal vaccine contaminations.

“However, since vaccine preparation involves the use of materials of biological origin, vaccines are subject to contamination by micro-organisms. In fact, vaccine contamination has occurred; a historical example of vaccine contamination, for example, can be found in the early days of development of the smallpox vaccine.” Biologicals 2010

Human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits distributed for wildlife rabies management–Ohio, 2012

“However, no adverse events were reported. Continued surveillance of human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits and public warnings to avoid contact with baits are needed because of the potential for vaccine virus infection.” morbidity and mortality weekly report 2013

Human Illness Associated with Use of Veterinary Vaccines

The potential for both exposure and for adverse consequences secondary to exposure to veterinary vaccines may be growing. With the exception of brucellosis vaccines, there have been few reports of suspected or confirmed adverse events in humans associated with the use of animal vaccines, but it is unclear whether that is because few adverse events occur or because adverse events are not recognized and/or reportedClinical Infectious Diseases 2003

Incidence of adverse events in ferrets vaccinated with distemper or rabies vaccine: 143 cases (1995-2001).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that there may be a high incidence of anaphylactic reactions after vaccination of domestic ferrets. Ferrets should be observed for at least 25 minutes after vaccination, and veterinarians who vaccinate ferrets should be prepared to treat anaphylactic reactions.JAVMA Index 2003

Isolation and characterization of an adventitious avian leukosis virus isolated from commercial Marek’s disease vaccines.

“The data indicate that commercial MD vaccines produced by two manufacturers were contaminated with endogenous subgroup E and an exogenous subgroup A ALV.” Avian Diseases 2006

Long-term viremia and fecal shedding in pups after modified-live canine parvovirus vaccination

Canine parvovirus (CPV) modified live virus vaccines are able to infect vaccinated dogs replicating in the bloodstream and enteric mucosa. However, the exact duration and extent of CPV vaccine-induced viremia and fecal shedding are not known.” Vaccine 2014

Molecular typing of canine parvovirus strains circulating from 2008 to 2012 in an organized kennel in India reveals the possibility of vaccination failure

“Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), which emerged in 1978, is considered as the major viral enteric pathogen of the canine population. With the emergence of new antigenic variants and incidences of vaccine failure, CPV has become one of the dreaded diseases of the canines worldwide.” Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2014

Mortality and morbidity among military personnel and civilians during the 1930s and World War II from transmission of hepatitis during yellow fever vaccination: systematic review.

During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine.American Public Health Association 2013

Postinflammatory sarcoma in cats.

Histological examination of 38 nodular formations extirpated from the site of vaccine administration to cats disclosed 25 cases of sarcoma and 13 of granuloma. Average age of the cats bearing sarcoma was 8.75 years whereas granuloma occurred at average age of 1.9 year.” Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 2003

Postpartum live virus vaccination: lessons from veterinary medicine.

“Pregnant rubella-susceptible women are often revaccinated during the postpartum period with the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine (MMR). It is known that the rubella virus from vaccine is secreted in breast milk and persists in the nose and throat for up to 28 days but it is not known whether the measles and mumps viruses are similarly secreted. It is probable the measles virus from vaccine is.” Medical Hypotheses 2002

Post-vaccinal distemper encephalitis in two Border Collie cross littermates.

CLINCIAL RELEVANCE: Post-vaccinal canine distemper has mainly been attributed to virulent vaccine virus, but it may also occur in dogs whose immunologic nature makes them susceptible to disease induced by a modified-live vaccine virus that is safe and protective for most dogs.” New Zealand Veterinary Journal 2015

[Postvaccinal fatal Streptococcus zooepidemicus necrotizing fasciitis in a young dog: a case report].

A 2.5-years-old female mongrel dog was routinely subcutaneously vaccinated. A few hours later mental dullness was noticed by the owner progressing into stupor the next day and resulting in a comatose state and death within 48 hours after vaccination.Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde 2014

Reemergence of vaccinia virus during Zoonotic outbreak, Pará State, Brazil.

“In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region.” Emerging Infectious Diseases journal 2013

Risk Factors for Development of Chronic Kidney Disease in Cats.

BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats may aid in its earlier detection.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2016

Smallpox and smallpox virus–200 years since the first vaccination in Norway

“Cowpox was once a rare disease in cattle, but a total of 70,985 bovine cases were reported between 1889 and 1928. The source of infection was thought to be humans vaccinated against smallpox.” Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening 2001

A survey of mycoplasma detection in veterinary vaccines.

“Nine live virus veterinary vaccines from six sources were found to be contaminated with mycoplasma. The vaccines were for use in canine, feline and avian species, and 53 batches of the products were at fault. The isolates were identified as Mycoplasma hominis, M. arginini, M. orale, M. hyorhinis and M. gallinarum.” Vaccines 1986

Testing for viral contaminants of veterinary vaccines in Hungary.

The safety of veterinary vaccines is of paramount importance and it is significantly jeopardised by extraneous agents such as bacteria, mycoplasma, Chlamydia and viruses. Several critical steps of vaccine manufacture involve a potential risk of viral contamination. Viruses, as extraneous, agents can be divided into two main groups. Group 1 agents, such as Pestivirus, chicken anaemia virus (CAV), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) are well-known to manufacturers and authorities.Biologicals 2010

Transmission of vaccinia virus from vaccinated milkers to cattle.

“An infection of cattle by transmission of vaccinia virus from milkers vaccinated against small pox is reported. Six vaccinia virus strains could be isolated from the vaccinal lesions localized on the nipples of the udder. Serological reactions with samples collected from diseased cows demonstrated the presence of HAI antibodies and made evident their kinetics at a 2-week-interval.” Virologie 1976

The unexpected discovery of Brucella abortus Buck 19 vaccine in goats from Ecuador underlines the importance of biosecurity measures.

“All results were negative, apart from a single sample, obtained from a serologically positive goat in Quito, that was positive for Brucella abortus strain 19 (B19). Several hypotheses are forwarded concerning this unexpected result. The most likely hypothesis is the possible accidental use of a needle, previously used for vaccination of cattle with the said vaccine, for the administration of drug treatment to the goat. This hypothesis underlines the necessity of biosecurity measures to prevent this type of accidents.” Tropical Animal Health and Production 2017

The use of fetal bovine serum: ethical or scientific problem?

“Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a common component of animal cell culture media. It is harvested from bovine fetuses taken from pregnant cows during slaughter. FBS is commonly harvested by means of a cardiac puncture without any form of anaesthesia. Fetuses are probably exposed to pain and/or discomfort, so the current practice of fetal blood harvesting is inhumane. Apart from moral concerns, several scientific and technical problems exist with regard to the use of FBS in cell culture. Efforts should be made to reduce the use of FBS or, preferably, to replace it with synthetic alternatives.” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 2017

Vaccine-associated immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in the dog

“ This study provides the first clinical evidence for a temporal relationship of vaccine-associated IMHA {immune-mediated hemolytic anemia} in the dog.” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1996