Autoimmune hazards of hepatitis B vaccine.

This paper points out that information on the safety of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) is biased as compared to classical requirements of evidence-based medicine (EBM), as exemplified by a documented selectivity in the presentation or even publication of available clinical or epidemiological data.

Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 19 years.

The odds of receiving EIS (special education services) were approximately nine times as great for vaccinated boys (n = 46) as for unvaccinated boys (n = 7), after adjustment for confounders. This study found statistically significant evidence to suggest that boys in United States who were vaccinated with the triple series Hepatitis B vaccine, during the time period in which vaccines were manufactured with thimerosal, were more susceptible to developmental disability than were unvaccinated boys.

Hepatitis B vaccine induces apoptotic death in Hepa16 cells.

We conclude that exposure of Hepa1-6 cells to a low dose of adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine leads to loss of mitochondrial integrity, apoptosis induction, and cell death, apoptosis effect was observed also in C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line after treated with low dose of vaccine

Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis.

These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that immunization with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is associated with an increased risk of MS.

Rheumatic disorders developed after hepatitis B vaccination.

Hepatitis B vaccine might be followed by various rheumatic conditions and might trigger the onset of underlying inflammatory or autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

A new case of reactive arthritis after hepatitis B vaccination.

Hepatitis B vaccine associated with erythema nodosum and polyarthritis. 

We describe a patient who developed erythema nodosum and polyarthritis after the first dose of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

Acute sero-positive rheumatoid arthritis occurring after hepatitis vaccination.

Arthritis after hepatitis B vaccination. Report of three cases. 

We report on three cases of vaccination-induced arthritis with different resulting disease. Two cases show the pattern of reactive arthritis. In the third case onset of rheumatoid arthritis was triggered by hepatitis vaccination. These three cases show that arthritis after hepatitis B vaccination probably is more common than reported so far.

Erosive polyarthritis triggered by vaccination against hepatitis B.

A one year followup of chronic arthritis following rubella and hepatitis B vaccination based upon analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database. 

This study revealed that adult rubella and adult hepatitis B vaccines were statistically associated with chronic arthritis which persisted for at least one year. The etiology for these adverse reactions may involve autoimmune mechanisms.

The development of rheumatoid arthritis after recombinant hepatitis B vaccination.

Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine may trigger the development of RA in MHC class II genetically susceptible individuals.

Rheumatic disorders developed after hepatitis B vaccination. 

Hepatitis B vaccine might be followed by various rheumatic conditions and might trigger the onset of underlying inflammatory or autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

Hepatitis B vaccination and arthritic adverse reactions: a followup analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database.

Yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccine and yeast sensitivity.

Reactions to thimerosal in hepatitis B vaccines.

Hypersensitivity to thimerosal in vaccines has been reported to induce persistent local reactions, urticarial and generalized exanthematic eruptions, and, in the case of the hepatitis B vaccine, urticaria with asthma. The authors describe two cases of extensive reactions, one in a patient who did not form antibodies to the principal vaccine antigen. Although not all thimerosal-sensitive patients develop adverse reactions to vaccines containing this material, there is a potential risk, and the reactions can be very long lasting.

Optic neuritis following hepatitis B vaccination in a 9-year-old girl

“A majority of the ophthalmological complications seen following hepatitis B vaccination consist of vision loss, optic neuritis, papillary edema, uveitis, acute placoid pigment epitheliopathy and central vein occlusion. We present a 9-year-old girl who was referred to our hospital with decrease in vision and pain in the left eye a week after hepatitis B vaccination.” Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 2009

Polio, hepatitis B and AIDS: an integrative theory on a possible vaccine induced pandemic.

“The hypothesis that simian virus 40 (SV40) infected polio vaccines may be linked to the evolution of acquired immunodeficiency disorder (AIDS), and certain cancers, has been advanced. Most recently, investigators discussed the likelihood of gene-reshuffling following SV40 infection as a precursor to acquired immune dysfunction.” Medical Hypotheses 2001

Post-vaccination encephalomyelitis: literature review and illustrative case.

“Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that is usually considered a monophasic disease. ADEM forms one of several categories of primary inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis, optic neuropathy, acute transverse myelitis, and neuromyelitis optica (Devic’s disease). Post-infectious and post-immunisation encephalomyelitis make up about three-quarters of cases, (…). Post-vaccination ADEM has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis B, and the Hog vaccine.” Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2008

Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis: a prospective study.

“CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that immunization with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is associated with an increased risk of MS, and challenge the idea that the relation between hepatitis B vaccination and risk of MS is well understood.” Neurology  2004

Recombinant Human Hepatitis B Vaccine Initiating Alopecia Areata: Testing the Hypothesis Using the C3H/HeJ Mouse Model

“Untoward effects of human vaccines suggest that recombinant hepatitis B vaccine may induce alopecia areata (AA) in some patients. Similar untoward immunological effects may also account for AA-like diseases in domestic species.” Veterinary Dermatology 2009

The Risk of AIDS After Hepatitis Vaccination

“In the recent decision analysis article by Sacks et al1 in the Dec 28, 1984, issue of The Journal, the authors claim to have calculated the maximum rate of hepatitis B vaccine-induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to be eight per 100,000 with 95% confidence. This calculation is based on a study of 40,000 persons who had been vaccinated prior to mid-1982.” JAMA 1985

Seronegative Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder following Exposure to Hepatitis B

“Controversy exists regarding a potential link between exposure to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) and central nervous system demyelinating diseases.” Case Reports in Neurology 2015

Severe necrotizing pancreatitis following combined hepatitis A and B vaccination

“Necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe form of pancreatitis and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We report a case of necrotizing pancreatitis that developed following combined hepatitis A and B vaccination.” CMAJ 2007

Should the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome deter hepatitis B vaccination? A decision analysis.

The current epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and fear that its causative agent contaminates the currently available hepatitis B vaccine may have deterred vaccine use. We formulated a decision-analytic model that compares the risk of death from hepatitis B and AIDS in those vaccinated with the risk of death from hepatitis B alone in those who wait two years for a synthetic vaccine.” JAMA 1984

Simultaneous sudden infant death syndrome.

“The simultaneous sudden deaths of twins rarely occur and therefore it has received limited attention in the medical literature. When the deaths of the twins meet the defined criteria for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) independently and take place within the same 24 h range it can be called as simultaneous SIDS (SSIDS). The case(s): Twin girls (3.5-month-old) were found dead by their mother in their crib, both in supine position.”  Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 2007

Sjögren’s syndrome occurring after hepatitis B vaccination

No abstract available Arthritis & Rheumatology 2000

Status epilepticus and lymphocytic pneumonitis following hepatitis B vaccination

“The case reported refers to a patient who developed status epilepticus in the day of her third dose of hepatitis B vaccination and we review the literature on this subject. A 12 year-old girl, without a relevant previous history, taking no drugs, developed a seizure attack followed by unconsciousness, and eventually died after three days of her third dose of hepatitis B (HB) vaccination. Autopsy study revealed cerebral edema with congestion and herniation and diffuse interstitial type pneumonitis.” European Journal of Internal Medicine 2008

Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case-Control Study

“Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines.” Frontiers in Psychiatry 2017

Ten cases of systemic lupus erythematosus related to hepatitis B vaccine

“The objective of this article is to identify common and atypical features of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosed following hepatitis B vaccination.” Lupus 2009

Thimerosal exposure and disturbance of emotions specific to childhood and adolescence: A case-control study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database. 2017

“BACKGROUND: This study evaluated Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the risk of a diagnosis called disturbance of emotions specific to childhood and adolescence (ED). Thimerosal is an organic-mercury (Hg)-containing compound used in some vaccines.” Brain Injury 2007

Thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure is Highly Associated with Childhood Obesity: A Case-control Study Using the Vaccine Safety Datalink

“CONCLUSIONS: In a dose-response manner, the present study associates an increased organic mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines with an increased risk of obesity diagnosis, and suggests that Thimerosal is an obesogen. The results are biologically plausible and future studies are needed to examine this phenomenon.” Archive of “North American Journal of Medical Sciences 2016

Transient facial nerve paralysis (Bell’s palsy) following administration of hepatitis B recombinant vaccine: a case report

“Presented here is a 26-year-old female patient with right lower motor neurone facial palsy following hepatitis B vaccination.” British Dental Journal 2014

Transverse myelitis and vaccines: a multi-analysis.

“We have disclosed 37 reported cases of transverse myelitis associated with different vaccines including those against hepatitis B virus, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and others, given to infants, children and adults.” Lupus 2009

Evolution of multiple sclerosis in France since the beginning of hepatitis B vaccination

“The figures available in France thus show a definite statistical signal in favor of a causal link between the HB vaccine event and the apparition of MS with a maximum correlation in the 2 years following immunization.” Immunologic Research 2014

Guillain-Barré syndrome after vaccination in United States: data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Food and Drug Administration Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (1990-2005)

BACKGROUND: There are isolated reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after receiving vaccination.Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease 2009

Guillain – Barre’ syndrome following recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and literature review.

“A 17 year-old woman developed progressive quadriparesis with bilateral facial diplegia after immunization with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine 3 days prior.” JOURNAL OF THE MEDICAL ASSOCIATION OF THAILAND 2000

Hair loss after routine immunizations

CONCLUSION: There may be an association, probably very rare, between vaccinations and hair loss.JAMA 1997

Hepatitis B vaccination and adult associated gastrointestinal reactions: a follow-up analysis.

“CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B vaccination was statistically associated by chi 2 analysis with gastrointestinal reactions including: hepatitis, gastrointestinal disease and liver function test abnormalities in comparison to our vaccine control groups.” Hepatogastroenterology 2002

Hepatitis B vaccination and associated oral manifestations: a non-systematic review of literature and case reports.

“After reviewing the literature, we observed that complications seen after Hepatitis B vaccination are sudden infant death syndrome, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, vasculititis optic neuritis, anaphylaxis, systemic lupus erytymatosus, lichen planus and neuro-muscular disorder.” Annals of Medical and Health Science Research 2004

Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis

“Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine prior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period. Nonwhite boys bore a greater risk.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 2010

Hepatitis B vaccine induces apoptotic death in Hepa1-6 cells

“Vaccines can have adverse side-effects, and these are predominantly associated with the inclusion of chemical additives such as aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. The objective of this study was to establish an in vitro model system amenable to mechanistic investigations of cytotoxicity induced by hepatitis B vaccine, and to investigate the mechanisms of vaccine-induced cell death.” Apoptosis 2012

Hepatitis B Vaccines—to Switch or Not to Switch

“Shortly after the licensure of Heptavax-B in 1981 and its general availability in July 1982, the discovery of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among male homosexuals threatened the success of this product, since some of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive plasma donors were members of this high-risk group. Intensive epidemiologic, virological, and serological evaluations were launched, which eventually found no evidence for the transmission of AIDS to recipients of the plasma-derived HBsAg vaccine.” JAMA 1987

Hepatitis vaccine pluses outweigh threat of AIDS.

No abstract available Journal of Dentistry 1983

HLA haplotype in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus triggered by hepatitis B vaccine

“CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B vaccine can potentially trigger both the onset or the exacerbations of several autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, by reduced immune complex clearance or molecular mimicry.” Clinical Nephrology 2010

Hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode in a 7-month-old infant after receipt of multiple vaccinations.

“A 7-month-old boy became difficult to arouse, was limp and had blue extremities 8 hours after immunization with intravenous poliovirus, diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b-hepatitis B virus and pneumococcal vaccines. The hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode had resolved by the time the infant was seen in an emergency department 1 hour later. The report describes hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode, encourages reporting of vaccine-associated adverse events and discusses prognosis and implications for subsequent immunization.” The Pediatric Infectious Disease 2005

The injection century: massive unsterile injections and the emergence of human pathogens.

“Unsterile medical injections are common in the less-developed world, where most visits to a doctor result in the (generally unnecessary) administration of intramuscular, or subcutaneous drugs. WHO estimates1 that every year unsafe injections result in 80 000–160 000 new HIV-1 infections, 8·16 million hepatitis B infections, and 2·3–4·7 million hepatitis C infections worldwide (this figure does not include transfusions). Together, these illnesses account for 1·3 million deaths and 23 million years of lost life.” The Lancet 1989

Kawasaki disease in an infant following immunisation with hepatitis B vaccine.

“The known association between hepatitis B and vasculitis has been reported in rare cases in adults after hepatitis B vaccination. We here describe a 35-day-old infant who developed Kawasaki disease 1 day after receiving his second dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Although extremely rare, this possible side effect should be noted and further investigated.” Clinical Rheumatology 2003

Lumbosacral acute demyelinating polyneuropathy following hepatitis B vaccination.

“We report a patient who presented with an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, that followed the second injection of a hepatitis B vaccination, and characterized by motor and sensory deficit restricted to lower limbs and perineum, and persistent bladder dysfunction. The relationship between the preceding event and neurological disease is discussed.” Autoimmunity 1999

Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle

“We conclude that the MMF {Macrophagic myofasciitis} lesion is secondary to intramuscular injection of aluminium hydroxide-containing vaccines, shows both long-term persistence of aluminium hydroxide and an ongoing local immune reaction, and is detected in patients with systemic symptoms which appeared subsequently to vaccination.” Barin 2001

Mental nerve neuropathy as a result of hepatitis B vaccination

“We describe a 20-year-old woman who presented with polyarthralgia and sensory neuropathy, including mental nerve neuropathy. The symptoms were attributed to hepatitis B vaccination.” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology 1997

Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome after hepatitis B vaccine

“METHODS: A 23-year-old woman with a one-week history of progressive loss of vision in the left eye and bilateral photopsia was referred for examination. Her symptoms appeared 24 hours after a booster intramuscular injection of hepatitis B vaccine.” American Journal of Ophthalmology 1996

Multiple sclerosis and hepatitis B vaccination: could minute contamination of the vaccine by partial hepatitis B virus polymerase play a role through molecular mimicry?

“Reports of multiple sclerosis developing after hepatitis B vaccination have led to the concern that this vaccine might be a cause of multiple sclerosis in previously healthy subjects. Some articles evidenced that minor Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase proteins could be produced by alternative transcriptional or translational strategies.” Medical Hypotheses 2005

Neonatal deaths after hepatitis B vaccine: the vaccine adverse event reporting system, 1991-1998

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate reports of neonatal deaths (aged 0-28 days) after hepatitis B (HepB) immunization reported to the national Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1999

Neuritis of the optic nerve after vaccinations against hepatitis A, hepatitis B and yellow fever

“BACKGROUND: Vaccinations are preventive measures against serious infections. In relation to the number of vaccinations per year, the incidence of severe complications is extremely low.” Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 2001

Bell’s palsy as a possible complication of hepatitis B vaccination in a child

“We conclude that Bell’s Palsy must be considered in all patients with this disease, following hepatitis B vaccination but the present universal vaccination programme to eradicate hepatitis B should not be changed.” Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition  2009

Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia following immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine: another angle of the ‘autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants’ (ASIA)

“The appearance of adverse event during immunization, the presence of autoimmune susceptibility and higher titers of autoantibodies all can be suggested as risk factors. ASIA criteria were fulfilled in all patients eluding the plausible link between ASIA and CFS/FM.” Immunologic Research 2014

Chronic fatigue syndrome with autoantibodies–the result of an augmented adjuvant effect of hepatitis-B vaccine and silicone implant

“CONCLUSION: Our patient illness started following hepatitis-B vaccine, suggesting that it was caused or accelerated by vaccination. In parallel to vaccination our patient suffered from breast injury, which might represent the time of silicone leak.” Autoimmunity Reviews 2008

The cost of unsafe injections

“Annually more than 1.3 million deaths and US$ 535 million are estimated to be due to current unsafe injection practices. With the global increase in the number of injections for vaccination and medical services, safer injecting technologies such as auto-disable syringes must be budgeted for.” Bulletin World Health Organization 1999

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis following Vaccination against Hepatitis B in a Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

“Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine.” Case Reports in Neurological Medicine 2016

Acute transverse myelitis secondary to hepatitis B vaccination

“CONCLUSIONS: Potential causal relationship between vaccination against hepatitis B and multiple sclerosis was brought to the attention and to public debate.” Revista Neurología 2000

Adverse events associated with childhood vaccines other than pertussis and rubella. Summary of a report from the Institute of Medicine.

In September 1993, the Institute of Medicine released a report entitled Adverse Events Associated With Childhood Vaccines: Evidence Bearing on Causality. The report examined putative serious adverse consequences associated with administration of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids; measles, mumps, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines; oral polio vaccine and inactivated polio vaccine; hepatitis B vaccines; and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines.” JAMA 1994

Anetoderma occurring after hepatitis B vaccination.

We describe, what we believe to be an additional case of such a rare disorder in a 21-year-old man. He presented with white spots and papules on his neck, upper limbs and trunk, that had developed gradually within the last 6 years without any symptoms.Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 2006