Activation of metastatic potential in African green monkey kidney cell lines by prolonged in vitro culture.

“Their malignant tumor growth was further demonstrated around the 500 passage level when tumor metastases were detected in the lungs of four of the 14 inoculated rats. Vero cells induced such lung metastases in rats already at passage 227.” In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology 1985

Assessing the tumorigenic phenotype of VERO cells in adult and newborn nude mice.

“During tissue-culture passage, VERO cells can develop the capacity to form tumors.”
Biologicals 2008

Association between SV40 and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

“Millions of people worldwide were inadvertently exposed to live simian virus 40 (SV40) between 1955 and 1963 through immunization with SV40-contaminated polio vaccines. Although the prevalence of SV40 infections in humans is not known, numerous studies suggest that SV40 is a pathogen resident in the human population today. SV40 is a potent DNA tumor virus that is known to induce primary brain cancers, bone cancers, mesotheliomas, and lymphomas in laboratory animals.”

Basal-cell epithelioma occurring in a smallpox vaccination scar.

“A patient with basal-cell epithelioma occurring in a smallpox vaccination site is reported. The association is probably not a chance occurrence.”

[Basocellular carcinoma in a smallpox vaccination scar].

“A 52 year old housewife was vaccinated against smallpox at the age of 18, on her right deltoid area. At the age of 50 she noticed erythema and scaling on the vaccination scar and 2 years later a nodule appear that enlarged during the following 3 months. There was no history nor skin changes suggestive of significant sun exposure. The histological examination of an initial biopsy and of the subsequently excised lesion revealed a basal cell carcinoma of the solid type.”
Medicina Cutanea Ibero-Latino-Americana 1988

Childhood cancer, intramuscular vitamin K, and pethidine given during labour.

“The only two studies so far to have examined the relation between childhood cancer and intramuscular vitamin K have shown similar results, and the relation is biologically plausible. The prophylactic benefits against haemorrhagic disease are unlikely to exceed the potential adverse effects from intramuscular vitamin K. Since oral vitamin K has major benefits but no obvious adverse effects this could be the prophylaxis of choice.” BMJ 1992

Cervical cancers after human papillomavirus vaccination.

There is no definite evidence showing the vaccine reduces the incidence of invasive cervical carcinoma.

Endogenous retroviruses as potential hazards for vaccines.

“ Many live attenuated vaccines for animals are manufactured by using cell lines from animals, which are known to produce infectious ERVs{endogenous retroviruses}; however, the risks of infection by ERVs from xenospecies through vaccination have been ignored. This brief review gives an overview of ERVs in cats, the potential risks of ERV infection by vaccination, the biological characteristics of RD-114 virus (a feline ERV), which possibly contaminates vaccines for companion animals, and the methods for detection of infectious RD-114 virus. Elsevier 2010

Epidemiological characteristics of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Analysis by immunophenotype. The Childrens Cancer Group.

“While a number of epidemiological studies of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) have been conducted, separate analysis of risk factors for ALL subtypes has generally not been possible. We report the results of an analysis of data obtained from parents of children with ALL (and a control group of children without cancer), linked to a clinical database. Cases were classified into four ALL subtypes, and odds ratios (OR) were determined for each subtype for a broad range of factors. Numerous significant associations were found, some across all subtypes and others that were subtype-specific. (…) postnatal jaundice; birthweight; MMR vaccination; (…)” Leukemia 1994

Extranodal MALT Lymphoma of the Right Triceps Muscle following Influenza Vaccine Injection: A Rare Case with an Interesting Presentation.

The study describes a case of a 67-year-old female who developed a Stage I E marginal zone lymphoma of the right triceps muscle 1 month after influenza vaccination at the same site.” Hematology 2011

Heterogeneity of the tumorigenic phenotype expressed by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

“The mechanisms by which cells spontaneously immortalized in tissue culture develop the capacity to form tumors in vivo likely embody fundamental processes in neoplastic development. The evolution of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells from presumptively normal kidney cells to immortalized cells that become tumorigenic represents an example of neoplastic development in vitro.(…) Such data also are useful when considering MDCK cells as a reagent for vaccine manufacture.Comparative Medicine 2011

A High-Temperature, High-Throughput Method for Monitoring Residual Formaldehyde in Vaccine Formulations.

“Formaldehyde is diluted during the vaccine manufacturing process, but residual quantities of formaldehyde are still present in some current vaccines. Although formaldehyde is considered safe for use in vaccines by the Food and Drug Administration, excessive exposure to this chemical may lead to cancer or other health-related issues.” Journal of Laboratory Automation 2014

HPV-negative Gastric Type Adenocarcinoma In Situ of the Cervix: A Spectrum of Rare Lesions Exhibiting Gastric and Intestinal Differentiation.

“In recent years, a number of benign and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation have been described but premalignant gastric-type lesions have not been well characterized. We report a series of 9 cases of a rare form of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) distinguished by gastric and sometimes intestinal differentiation and lack of association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.” The American Journal of Surgical Pathology 2017

Injection Site Lichenoid Dermatitis Following Pneumococcal Vaccination: Report and Review of Cutaneous Conditions Occurring at Vaccination Sites.

“BACKGROUND: Cutaneous dermatoses and malignancies have occurred at the sites of vaccines.” Dermatology and Therapy (Heidelberg) 2016

Lymphoma of the thyroid in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis and Sjögren’s syndrome–case report

“As many years of immunisation may lead to carcinogenesis it is important to raise awareness among medical staff with regard to cases of chronic autoimmune disease.” Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski 2008

Malignant change in smallpox vaccination scars.

“Seven cases of patients who had malignant change in smallpox vaccination scars have been previously published. This report is the eighth such case. The patient developed a pigmented basal-cell epithelioma in a vaccination scar 20 years after vaccination. Histological examination revealed a superficial basal-cell epithelioma.” Archives of Dermatology 1966

Malignant Tumors as a Late Complication of Vaccination

“Four basal and one squamous cell carcinomas and a single instance of a malignant melanoma arising in vaccination scars have occurred in five southern California patients. Sun exposure on a previously scarred skin was the main etiological factor in the development of the basal and squamous cell tumors. Sun exposure was probably unimportant in the case of the melanoma because of the short time interval between vaccination and the development of the tumor.”
Archives of Dermatology 1968

Malignant tumors in smallpox vaccination scars: a report of 24 cases.
“A study of 24 patients with proved malignant tumors originating in smallpox vaccination scars is reported. Three different tumor types were found—malignant melanomas, basal cell carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. There was no exposure to known chemical carcinogens. In most cases a primary vaccination site was involved.” Archives of Dermatology 1968 

Mumps and ovarian cancer: modern interpretation of an historic association

Mumps parotitis may lead to expression and immune recognition of a tumor-associated form of MUC1 and create effective immune surveillance of ovarian cancer cells that express this form of MUC1. Cancer Causes & Control 2010

Observations on vitamin K deficiency in the fetus and newborn: has nature made a mistake?
“This protective effect of low K1 levels is particularly important in the presence of the high mitotic rates and rapid cell turnover in the avian embryo and mammalian fetus.” Thrombosis Haemostasis 1995

Of Mice and Men: On the Origin of XMRV.
“(…), leaving the question: how did XMRV{retrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus} enter the human population? We will discuss two possible routes: either via direct virus transmission from mouse to human, as repeatedly seen for, e.g., Hantaviruses, or via the use of mouse-related products by humans, including vaccines. We hypothesize that mouse cells or human cell lines used for vaccine production could have been contaminated with a replicating variant of the XMRV precursors encoded by the mouse genome.” Frontiers in Microbiology 2010

Oral polio vaccine and human cancer: a reassessment of SV40 as a contaminant based upon legal documents
“The confirmation of the removal by one drug manufacturer, Lederle, has been made public at an international symposium in January 1997, where its representatives stated that all of Lederle’s seeds had been tested and screened to assure that it was free from SV40 virus. However, in litigation involving the Lederle oral polio vaccine, the manufacturer’s internal documents failed to reveal such removal in all of the seeds. The absence of confirmatory testing of the seeds, as well as testimony of a Lederle manager, indicate that this claim of removal of SV40 and the testing for SV40 in all the seeds cannot be fully substantiated. These legal documents and testimony indicate that the scientific community should not be content with prior assumptions that SV40 could not have been in the oral polio vaccine.” Anticancer Research 2010

Oral versus intramuscular phytomenadione: safety and efficacy compared.

“Following a report of an increased cancer risk after intramuscular phytomenadione, a series of papers on this issue appeared.” Drug Safety 1999

Polio, hepatitis B and AIDS: an integrative theory on a possible vaccine induced pandemic.
“The hypothesis that simian virus 40 (SV40) infected polio vaccines may be linked to the evolution of acquired immunodeficiency disorder (AIDS), and certain cancers, has been advanced.” Medical Hypotheses 2001

Squamous cell carcinoma in ulcer after bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination
“Marjolin’s ulcer is an aggressive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) found in chronically inflamed skin. SCC has been reported in smallpox vaccination sites, whereas basal cell carcinomas are more common in scar after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. A 72-year-old man presented with a chronic ulcer at the site of his childhood BCG vaccination.” Ugeskrift for Laeger 2014

Systematically experimental investigation on carcinogenesis or tumorigenicity of VERO cell lines of different karyotypes in nude mice in vivo used for viral vaccine manufacture.
“Many cell lines used for vaccine production have a potentially strong tumorigenic character.”
Yi Chuan Xue Bao 2014

Tumorigenicity of Vero cells.

“They were derived from African green monkey kidney, and their growth properties and culture characteristics have many advantages over other cell substrates for use in vaccine production. We have tested Vero cells for tumorigenicity in nude mice and in a human muscle organ culture system, and found a significant increase in their tumorigenic potential with increasing passage numbers.”

A case control study of carcinoma of the ovary

Women with prior infections of mumps, measles, rubella or chickenpox were significantly less likely to develop ovarian cancer.

Febrile infections and malignant melanoma: results of a case-control study

Adults with previous infections of influenza, measles, mumps or chickenpox are less likely to develop malignant melanoma.

Does prior infection with varicella-zoster virus influence risk of adult glioma?

A history of chickenpox is significantly protective against the risk of developing a brain tumor.

Febrile infectious childhood diseases in the history of cancer patients and matched controls

Childhood diseases experienced early in life protect against many different types of cancer later in life.

Do childhood diseases affect NHL and HL risk? A case-control study from northern and southern Italy

Measles and other childhood infections protect against cancer of the lymph system.

A meta-analysis of the association between day-care attendance and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Early exposure to infectious disease significantly reduces the risk of childhood leukemia.

Squamous cell carcinoma in ulcer after bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination].

“Marjolin’s ulcer is an aggressive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) found in chronically inflamed skin. SCC has been reported in smallpox vaccination sites, whereas basal cell carcinomas are more common in scar after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. A 72-year-old man presented with a chronic ulcer at the site of his childhood BCG vaccination.”